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Acne is one most common skin disorders that happen to people. It’s a chronic skin disease in which the hair follicles become clogged due to the accumulation of dead skill cells and oil from the skin. Persons affected with acne do present with symptoms such as blackheads, whiteheads, pimples, and scarring. This disorder mostly affects areas of the body where there is a high number of oil glands. They include the chest, the back, and the face. Jawline acne is one of the most common forms of acne. This condition can cause other complications in patients, such as reduced self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and suicidal thoughts in extreme cases. This skin disorder mostly develops on the jawline of the face.  This is because acne can disfigure the face for so long, regardless of what type of remedy one chooses to use. This is where the job of a dermatologist comes in. It’s the job of a dermatologist to diagnose and treat skin disorders. The diseases dermatologists can treat and how they treat them would be discussed later in this article.

There is no specific cause of acne. However, some factors have been identified to contribute to the development of the disease. Some of them include genetics, diet, lifestyle, hormonal level, and so on.

Dermatologists treat this disorder through a combination of treatment options. Persons affected with this disorder are advised to reduce their consumption of simple carbohydrates. Examples of simple carbohydrates include sugar. Others include the application of chemicals such as benzoyl peroxide, salicylic acid is commonly used. Others include antibiotics, retinoid, birth control pills and so on.

What Is Jawline Acne?

Acne develops in areas of the body that has a high number of oil glands. One of the most common places that acne develops is on the face. They present as breakouts, especially along the oily T-zone, which starts on the forehead, then extends down to the nose and the chin.  There is a difference between the pimples that develop along the jawline as compared to those that pop up elsewhere on the face. The pimples that grow on the jawline are usually solid bumps and are not typically filled with pus. Pressing them with your hand can turn them into permanent scars on the face; however, treating them correctly would help prevent this from happening.

Why Does Acne Form on The Jawline?

There are small oil glands on the skin, which are known as sebaceous glands. These glands secrete oil that helps in lubricating the skin and protecting it from being dry. However, there are situations in which dead skin cells and excess oil clogs these pores, causing bacteria to grow in them. This eventually leads to the formation of a pimple. Pimples can form on any part of the face, especially along the jawline. There are some factors that increase oil production on the face, which eventually causes acne. They include the following:

  • Hormones: Acne has a direct connection with hormonal activity. As an illustration, this skin disorder tends to occur during the menstrual cycle and puberty. One of the things you can be certain of when you attain puberty is that you’d develop acne on your face and other parts of your body. This can be attributed to the increase in sex hormones, specifically androgens, which causes the skin follicle glands to get bigger, thereby producing more oily sebum. Some of the hormones liked with acne include dihydrotestosterone, insulin-like growth factor and so on. There are some hormones that cause high-androgen state. Some of them include polycystic ovary syndrome, congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In addition, it can also develop as a side effect of over-the-counter bodybuilding and dietary supplements. Some of these supplements do contain illegally added anabolic steroids.
  • Infections: It has been shown that some type of bacteria contribute to the development of acne, although, the mechanism behind this isn’t fully understood yet. However, studies have revealed that these bacteria induce a moderate to severe inflammatory They are capable of changing, perpetuating and adapting to the abnormal cycle of inflammation, oil production and inadequate sloughing off dead skin cells.
  • Diet: It has been shown that diet plays an essential part in the development of acne. This is why persons affected with acne are advised to avoid consuming simple carbohydrates such as sugar. The relationship between diet and acne hasn’t been made clear cut. In addition, it has been suggested that mil can also worsen acne.
  • Stress: Stress worsens acne. Studies have shown that people who are emotionally or physically stressed tend to have breakouts. This is common in university students preparing for examinations, as they tend to have breakouts during their preparation.
  • Medications: There are some medications that contribute to acne. Medications such as lithium, testosterone, isoniazid worsen pre-existing acne.
  • Genetics: Studies have shown that some people are genetically predisposed to developing acne. Persons with a family history or immediate sibling that has acne has a high chance of also having acne.
  • Diseases: There are some diseases that cause Most of these diseases are those that abnormally increases the androgen levels in the body. Examples of such diseases include polycystic ovarian syndrome, congenital adrenal hyperplasia and so on.
  • Shaving: Shaving also contributes to the development of acne. This occurs when we shave with a dirty razor. This causes bacteria to enter into the skin. In addition, there are some shaving creams and oils that can clog the pores.

                      What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Acne?

  • Scars: Acne scars occurs due to the inflammation within the dermal layer of skin. It has been estimated that this affects about 95% of people affected with acne. The scar mostly occurs due to the abnormal healing following the dermal inflammation. There are also situations in which patients develop hypertrophic scars. However, this is rarely happening. Keloid scars can also develop from acne, and this tends to occur more in men with darker skin, as compared to other people.
  • Pigmentation: People affected with acne may also present with post inflammatory hyperpigmentation. This usually occurs due to nodular acne lesions.

                                 Treatment Of Acne

There are various treatment options for acne. Dermatologists treat this condition based on the cause. Some of the medications used in treating acne include anti-androgen medications, antibiotics, alpha hydroxy acid, retinoids salicylic acids and so on. The treatment of acne relies on 4 different mechanisms. They include the following:

  • To reduce inflammation
  • To regulate the hormonal level.
  • To kill off bacteria that are responsible for the development of acne.
  • To normalize the shedding and production of sebum from the skin pores.

Other methods such as photo and laser therapy are also used. However, they are not as used as first-line medications. Other methods used in the treatment of acne include the following:

  • Diet: As earlier mentioned, studies have identified a connection between diet and acne. It has been shown that the excess consumption of simple carbohydrates, such as sugar worsens acne. Patients are advised to reduce their consumption of sugar. In addition, it has also been observed that milk worsens acne, patients are advised to also reduced how much they consume milk.
  • Hormonal agents: It has been shown that acne can be improved by making use of combined control pills. A combination of estrogen and progestin are effective in the treatment of this skin disease. They work by reducing the production of androgenic hormones by the ovaries, and also decreasing the free and biologically active fractions of androgens.
  • Pregnancy: Pregnancy has been associated with an increase in sebaceous glands in the skin. This leads to an increased production of oil in the skin, which would eventually lead to acne. Pregnant women affected with this disease can use some effects such as erythromycin, metronidazole, and clindamycin. It’s important to consult your physician to know what medications you should use.

What Is Dermatology?

This is a field under medicine that deals with skin, hair, and nails. Dermatology focuses on the medical and surgical aspects of the skin. A dermatologist is an individual that specializes in the dermatology. A dermatologist is capable of diagnosing and treating diseases associated with the skin, hair, and nails.

What Conditions Can Be Treated By A Dermatologist?

There are a lot of conditions that can be diagnosed and treated by a dermatologist. As earlier mentioned, dermatologists are experts in the medical and surgical treatment of people affected with diseases of the skin, mucous membranes, hair, and nails. It’s important to consult a dermatologist whenever you notice any abnormality in your skin, regardless of how severe it is. Some of the common conditions treated by a dermatologist include the following:

  • Connective tissue disorders
  • Acne
  • Dermatitis
  • Keloids
  • Melanoma
  • Neurofibromatosis
  • Psoriasis
  • Scleroderma
  • Skin cancer
  • Skin infections
  • Vasculitis
  • Wrinkles and so on.

 

  1. Neurofibromatosis: This is a genetic disorder that causes the growth of tumors on nerve tissues. These tumors can grow on any part of the nervous system, especially in the nervous system, which includes the brain and the spinal cord. The tumors are usually benign, but can also become malignant. The symptoms presented by patients are usually mild. However, the complications of the disease can be serious. Some of them include loss of hearing, learning difficulties, loss of vision, severe pain, heart and blood vessel problems and so on. Dermatologists treat this condition by encouraging the healthy growth and development in children affected by the disorder. In addition, surgery can also be carried out, especially when the tumor presses on a nerve. Surgery also helps to improve the symptoms of the disease.

What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Neurofibromatosis?

The symptoms presented by patients affected with neurofibromatosis depends on the type the patient has. Some of the types of neurofibromatosis include neurofibromatosis 1, neurofibromatosis 2, and schwannomatosis.

  1. Neurofibromatosis 1: This disease is most prevalent in childhood. Some of the signs may be noticed shortly after birth, and the patients definitely present with symptoms before the age of 10. Some of the signs and symptoms are as follows:
  • Café au lait spots: These spots are harmless and are common in a lot of people. These spots are a strong sign of neurofibromatosis 1. They present at birth, or shortly after, which could be the first years of life.
  • Lisch nodules: These nodules are not easily seen. They are tiny bumps on the iris of the eyes. The good part is that they don’t affect vision.
  • Freckling in the armpits: This usually appears when the affected child is around 3 to 5 years old. They are smaller than café au lait, and also tend to occur in clusters in skin folds.
  • Optic glioma: These are tumors that develop in affected children at age 3. These tumors never present in adults and adolescence.
  • Short stature: Children affected with neurofibromatosis are generally below average in height.
  • Learning problems: Children affected with the condition do have learning problems, although usually mild. They do have difficulties learning how to read and with mathematics.

 

  1. Neurofibromatosis 2

Neurofibromatosis 2 is usually less common than neurofibromatosis 1. The signs and symptoms of this disease usually occur as a result of the development of benign, slow-growing tumors in both ears. This condition is also referred to as acoustic neuromas. Some of the signs and symptoms of the disease include the following:

  • Impairment in hearing
  • Patients might experience ringing in their ears
  • Headaches
  • Patients might also develop poor balance.

 

  1. Schwannomatosis: This is a rare type of neurofibromatosis. It mostly occurs in people before the age of 20. This disorder causes the growth of tumors on the cranial, spinal and peripheral nerves. It rarely develops in the nerve that carries sound and balance information from the inner ear to the brain. Some of the symptoms include the following:
  • Patients might present with chronic pain, which can occur in any part of the body.
  • Patients can also experience a loss of muscle.
  • Persons affected with this disorder might also present with numbness in various parts of the body.

Diagnosis Of Neurofibromatosis

Dermatologists diagnose this condition by taking a family and medical history of the patient. A thorough physical examination of the patient is also done. This includes checking for café au lait spots, and so on. Other tests that dermatologists might carry out to diagnose this condition include the following:

  • Eye examination: An eye doctor checks the eyes for the presence of latch nodules and cataracts, which are associated with neurofibromatosis.
  • Genetic tests: This is done to detect neurofibromatosis 1 and 2. They can also be done prenatally. It’s important to go for this test before having children.
  • Imaging tests: Imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans and so on are used to detect bone abnormalities, tumors in the brain and spinal cord.

            Treatment Of Neurofibromatosis

Neurofibromatosis has no cure. However, physicians manage signs and symptoms. The earlier the disease is diagnosed, the better the prognosis. Below are some of the ways this disease is treated:

  1. Surgery to remove tumors: Physicians improve the symptoms presented by patients by removing part or all of the tumor. This is done to prevent it from compressing important tissues and organs. People affected with neurofibromatosis 2 may experience hearing impairment, compression of the brainstem. Your physician might recommend surgery to remove the acoustic neuromas that are causing the problem.
  2. Stereotactic radiosurgery: This is done by applying radiation to the tumor. This is usually an option if the patient has neurofibromatosis 2 and needs to remove acoustic neuromas.
  3. Auditory brainstem implants: These are devices that help to boost and improve the hearing ability of patients, especially those affected with neurofibromatosis 2.
  4. Pain treatment: Physicians do recommend medications to relieve pain that the patient might be suffering from. Examples of medications include amitriptyline, gabapentin.
  5. Epilepsy medications: Examples of epilepsy medications include carbamazepine, topiramate and so on.

 

  1. Melanoma: This disease is also known as malignant melanoma, and it develops from the pigment-containing cells known as melanocytes. This disease mostly occurs in the skin, but may also develop in the mouth, intestines, or eyes. The most common cause of melanoma is the exposure to ultraviolet light, especially in individuals with low levels of skin pigment. The ultraviolet radiations may be from the sun or a tanning device. Studies have shown that about a quarter of melanoma cases develop as a result of moles. It has been shown that individuals with a family history of melanoma and those with a weak immune system have a high risk of developing this disease. Physicians diagnose this condition by taking the medical and family history of the patient. This is then followed up with a physical examination of the patient. Biopsy and the analysis of the skin lesion are done to confirm the diagnosis. Some of the ways of preventing this condition are by wearing sunscreen and avoiding ultraviolet radiation to prevent melanoma. Dermatologists treat this disease by surgery. Patients in whom melanoma has spread might have to undergo a combination of treatment methods. This might include immunotherapy, biologic therapy, radiation, and
  2. Vitiligo: Vitiligo is a chronic condition that is characterized by patches of the skin due to the loss of pigment. This disease can affect any part of the body, including the hair and inside of the mouth. Typically, the color of the skin and hair is determined by melanin. However, vitiligo occurs when melanocytes, melanin-producing cells stop functioning or dies. This disease can affect anyone, regardless of gender or race. However, it’s more prominent in people with dark skin. This condition doesn’t lead to death; neither is it contagious. However, it can make people affected with the disease develop low self-esteem or stressed.

What Are the Signs and Symptoms Of Vitiligo?

Persons affected with vitiligo may present with the following signs and symptoms:

  • Patients present with a patchy loss of skin color.
  • Patients might also have an alteration of the inner layer of the retina.
  • Patients might have a discoloration of their hair, especially their eyelashes, eyebrows, and beard.

Vitiligo might develop on any part of the body; however, it occurs in different patterns. They include;

  • On one side of the body: This is a type of vitiligo that affects just one side of the body.
  • On a few areas of the body: This is also known as focal vitiligo.
  • Many parts of the body: This is also known as generalized vitiligo, and it affects many parts of the body.

When Is It Important To Consult A Physician?

It’s important to consult a physician as soon as you notice that you’re losing color in some parts of your skin, hair, and eyes. Although this disease has no cure, seeing a physician for treatment can help to stop or reduce the discoloring process. Some color might also be returned to the skin.

What Are the Causes of Vitiligo?

Vitiligo occurs when the pigment that produces melanin in the body dies or stops functioning. This causes some portion of the body to be white or lighter. The exact cause of this disease isn’t understood yet. However, some factors that contribute to the development of the disease has been identified:

  • Heredity: Studies have shown that persons with a family history of vitiligo are more predisposed to developing the disease.
  • Autoimmunity: This is a condition in which the body immune system attacks and destroys the pigment-producing
  • Trigger events: There are some conditions that trigger Some of them include stress, exposure to excess ultraviolet radiation, and industrial chemicals.

What Are The Complications Of Vitiligo?

Some of the complications of vitiligo include the following;

  • Depression: This occurs as a result of the social stigmatization that is associated with vitiligo.
  • Skin cancer
  • Loss of hearing

                                              Diagnosis of Vitiligo

Physicians diagnose vitiligo by asking about the family and medical history of the patient. This is to rule out other diseases such as dermatitis or psoriasis. This is usually followed by a physical examination of the patient. Dermatologists might also carry other tests such as the biopsy of the skin, and blood tests to check for any underlying autoimmune conditions.

Treatment of Vitiligo

There are many treatment options available for vitiligo. However, the outcomes of these treatments differ, from patient to patient. Dermatologists might administer medications, surgery or therapy. Examples of medications that the physician might administer include the following;

  • Corticosteroid Creams: Corticosteroid creams are used to restore the color of the affected part. This would be more effective if started early. Although, patients might not see a change in their skin color for a long time. However, it’s important to know that this type of cream might cause some side effects. As an illustration, the cream can thin the skin, and can also cause the development of lines on the skin.
  • Medications that affect the immune system: There are some medications that are helpful in treating vitiligo. Examples include medications that contain tacrolimus or pimecrolimus. They are effective for patients with small areas of depigmentation.
  • Light therapy: This is done to restore color to some of the light patches. This treatment makes use of a substance known as psoralen.

References

Black, M. and Marshman, G. (2010). Dermatology and pemphigus vulgaris: Association or coincidence?. Australasian Journal of Dermatology, 52(2), pp.e11-e14.

Greenberg, S. (2014). Sustained autoimmune mechanisms in dermatomyositis. The Journal of Pathology, 233(3), pp.215-216.

Lam, C. and Vleugels, R. (2012). Management of cutaneous bruises. Dermatologic Therapy, 25(2), pp.112-134.

Scadden, D. and Srivastava, A. (2012). Advancing Stem Cell Biology toward Stem Cell Therapeutics. Cell Stem Cell, 10(2), pp.149-150

 

 

 

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